According to the report by independent, not-for-profit research firm C.D. Howe Institute, modern treaties implemented between 1991 and 2006 in rural British Columbia, the Northwest Territories and Yukon had measurable benefits for First Nations and mining companies alike. The treaties signed in Canada since the 1970s have boosted the average annual income of First Nation communities and lead to greater development of natural resources.
Among those gains, author Fernando M. Aragón says that real average annual income for First Nations individuals increased by about 17% in the period. He also says those land claim agreements drove wages for workers in extractive industries up by almost 40% and increased the income of workers living in neighbouring, off-reserve communities by almost 9%. The report claims that by clarifying property rights, treaties have reduced transaction costs for extractive industries and facilitate their development.